Mapping machine
United States Patent 2149440
The present invention relates to a mapping ma- a chine and specifically relates to a machine for s recording the direction (horizontal deviations) of a road and its profile or contour (vertical devia- 2 tions) while a vehicle in which the machine is t mounted is traversed over said road. I...

Early, Jackson John
Application Number:
Publication Date:
Filing Date:
Early, Jackson John
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
346/7, 346/8, 346/29
International Classes:
View Patent Images:

The present invention relates to a mapping ma- a chine and specifically relates to a machine for s recording the direction (horizontal deviations) of a road and its profile or contour (vertical devia- 2 tions) while a vehicle in which the machine is t mounted is traversed over said road. I The various objects and features will be clearly understood from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which: Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view showing the entire apparatus, Fig. 2 is a side view of the map making machine, 13 Fig. 3 is a plan view of the machine of Fig. 2, Fig. 4 is a front view of the mechanism for the automatic guiding of the map paper, Fig. 5 is a front detail view of the ink wheel and upper guide wheel supports, Fig. 6 is a side view of the detail of Fig. 5, Fig. 7 is a front detail view of the sphere mounting, Fig. 8 is a plan view of the detail of Fig. 7, Fig. 9 is a side view of the detail of Fig. 7, , -Fig. 10 is a side view of the profile device of the mapping machine, Fig. 11 is a plan view of the profile device of Fig. 10, Fig. 12 is a top view with a schematic wiring so diagram showing an automatic orientation mechanisnm Fig. 13 is a cross-sectional view of a suitable compass, and PFg. 14 is a diagrammatic view of the sphere n5 and wheels.

Referring to Fig. 1 the apparatus is adapted to be mounted on a truck, trailer or other vehicle so that the road wheel I will contact and run on the road I' which is to be mapped. The wheel is rotatably mounted on any support or arm 2 secured to the vehicle 3. A flexible shaft 4 conveys the rotary motion, of the wheel to a sphere i which is mounted on a trunnion I counterbalanced at 1 so that the sphere I may swing around a horizontal axis in a direction in the longitudinal axis of the vehicle or the direction of the road to be mapped. A pair of friction wheels I and I contact with the sphere 5. The wheel I is mounted on a horizontal axle II whereas the 5wheel I is mounted on a vertical axle II. The axle 1 rotates through gears 12, shaft I, gears 14 and the shaft II on which is mounted the main drive wheel II for the map paper 11. Above g the paper 11 is the inking device II. Shaft IS Jso rotates a toothed wheel 19 for the sheet or trip of profile or contour paper 20.

The shaft II through gears 2 , shaft 22, gears !3, shaft 24 and'gears 25, operates the screwhreaded shaft 26 on which is mounted the profile a )en 21.

Further additional mechanical details are ineluded than have been referred to in the foregong and which are shown in Fig. 1, but such further elements are illustrated in the detailed views which will now be referred to.

In Fig. 2, the sphere 5 is rotatably mounted in bearings 28 mounted on a frame 29. This frame 29 has two bearings 30 and the counterweight 7 is suspended by the fork 31 from below the bearings 30 so that the sphere and frame 29 together with the fork 31 and weight 7 will pendulously swing about the bearings 30 in a direction parallel with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

The bearings 30 are suitably mounted in a frame SO 32 mounted on the vehicle.

The drive shaft 15 leads into the automatic guiding mechanism for the map paper which is shown in detail in Fig. 4. In this figure, the mechanism is suspended from the table 33 by 2g means of hanging supports 34 which act as bearings for the various shafts. Shaft 15 drives the main drive wheel 16 for the paper sheet II. A second wheel which is a guide wheel 35 is driven by shaft 15 through gears 36, shaft 31, gears 38, 80 shaft 39, differential gear 40 and shaft 41 on which the wheel 35 is mounted. The differential gear 40 is for the purpose of revolving guide wheel 35 either faster or slower than wheel 16 in order to orient the map paper 17. 18 is the inking wheel and 42 is the idler wheel for the map paper 17. On the differential housing 40', a worm gear 43 is secured thereto meshing with worm 44 which latter is rotated by a shaft 45, suitable bevel gears or flexible shaft, rod 46 and crank handle 47 on the top of the table as shown in Pg. 3.

As seen in Figs. 2 and 3, the table top 33 may be provided with a front plate glass 48 provided over the table and raised approximately one-fourth of an inch above the table, and a rear board 48 approximately three inches above the table for mounting and supporting thereon the compass 5I and the mirror II. As seen in Fig. 3, there is a space between the plate glass 48 and the board 41 60 through which the inking wheel II and the idler wheel 42 project. The shaft 46 may also be mounted over and on top of the board 41 by bearings 52, or brought to any other position convenient to the operator. M The inking device Is shown in Pigs. 5 an( wherein tubes 53 are secured in the board One tube carries the inking device 18 and t] comprises an inking roller 54 which is adjustal spring pressed on the paper I1 by means spring 55 In tube 53 and adjustable screw I The other roller Is the upper guide wheel 57 sin larly mounted In its tube 53. The tube with t inking roller has a fixed reference pointer 58 s cured in the end of its tube 53 for convenient marking the starting and stopping points on t] paper 17. The spaced distance between the in] ing roller 54 and the upper guide wheel 57 may l adjusted by means of a rod mounted In bracke 60, one on each tube 53 and held in adjust( position by lock nuts 61, through rod 59 whic tends to maintain the roller 54 and wheel 57 i rigid positions relative to lateral movement This is particularly important for automatic or eration by means of a repeater compass.

As seen in Pig. 6, a capillary tube 62 is flle with ink and is provided with a nozzle 63 adja cent to and in contact with the periphery of th inking roller 54. However, any suitable inkin device may be used such as a pad saturated wit ink which is suitably mounted and contacts wit] the wheel 54.

Figs. 10 and 11 show the profile or contou recording device in which the paper is rolled fron spool 64 to spool 67. Spool 67 is driven by spring belt 65 from the pulley 66 driven by th( shaft 15 and winds up the paper. The toothec wheel 19 is also mounted on shaft 15 and drivel the profile paper.

Fig. 14 shows the operation and accuracy of the sphere and friction wheels In which as indicated on the other figures of the drawings 5 is the sphere rotating about axis S, 8 is the horizontal friction wheel, and 9 is the vertical or profile friction wheel.

Assume friction wheels and sphere of equal diameters: then, if road is level the ratio of drive between sphere and horizontal friction wheel is 1:1, as this wheel H, rides on a diameter XY, of sphere. The profile frict.un wheel P rides on an axis of rotation of the sphere and therefore does not turn at all.

If the machine goes up some grade, a, the sphere's axis of rotation remains level due to its counterweight, while the friction wheels are moved about the sphere through the angle, a, to the new positions Hi and Pi.

Wheel H now rides on a circle on the sphere whose diameter is MN and therefore turns pror,. Portionally less than when on a great circle.

Wheel P rides on the circle whose diameter is BC and begins to turn in proportion to the length of BC.

Now from the figure it is evident that triani, gles MNO and ABC are identical and that MN equals OM cos a, while BC equals AC sine a.

The two wheels are, therefore, turned proportionally to the road distance times the-cosine and sine respectively of the angles of ascent, a, ;, and will record the true horizontal and vertical distances which are the required map and profile distance, respectively.

The shaft 46 may be operated by a compass repeater to orient the paper automatically and ;o thus eliminate the manual control. In this case, it will be necessary to use suitably designed gears or other means to eliminate any back lash in the orienting mechanism. An automatic operator is shown in Fig. 12 in which a worm gear 90 is 7g mounted to rotate with the shaft 46. A gear d 6 91, having as many teeth as gear 43, has the 49. compass and repeater mounted thereon and the his arrow 92 is the equivalent in operation to the fly needle 50' of ig. 2. A Pair of contacts 93 are of mounted on the gear which are closely spaced N6. apart and a circuit leads to a motor 95 (through hi- suitable relays) to orient the paper so that the he lines 80 on the paper I7, Pig. 2 will always coine- cide with the compass direction.

ley The operation of the entire apparatus is as ae follows.

Fk- The vehicle 3 in which the apparatus is mountte ed is started along the road of which it is dets sired to chart Its course and its profile or conhd tour. The road wheel I begins to rotate which nh causes rotation of the sphere 5. Assuming that .n the vehicle is passing over a level road for the s. time being which causes only rotation from the - sphere 5 to be transmitted through shaft 0, gears 12, shaft 13, gears 14 and shaft IS. It Is d understood that upon starting, the sheet I7, Fig. 3, which preferably has parallel ruled lines 80 .e thereon, is so placed on the table 33 that the g lines are in alignment with the needle 50' of the h compass and during the mapping course the h sheet 17 is always maintained in such aligned position. If the vehicle should make any turn, r the sheet IT is manually (or automatically, by n a compass repeater) adjusted to align the lines 80 with the compass needle 50', such manual adSjustment comprising the turning of the crank S47 to rotate the guide wheel 35. Thus an accurate record is made on sheet 17 of the course of a road.

The wheel 8, Fig. 1, also advances the sheet 20 as the vehicle travels over the rod. When starting the recording, the pen 27, Fig. 11, is set on any line of the profile paper 20 and the elevation above sea level may be calculated for that point. As long as the road is level a straight line will be recorded on sheet 20 parallel with the ruled lines thereon, but when reaching a grade or a decline in the road the profile wheel 9 is moved off the center of the axis of rotation of the sphere 5 so that said wheel 9 commences to rotate, Fig. 13. This causes rotation of the shaft 26 and the screw-threaded rod 81 to move the pen to one side or the other of the initial point as indicated by line .82, ig. 11, which records the contour of the road.

It is of course understood that any type of compass-magnetic or otherwise--can be used if it is sufficiently free from turning errors due to inertia effects, and is mounted so it can be easily compared with the parallel lines on the map 55 A compass constructed similar to a standard Navy type compass, but having a transparent card bearing an index line and a transparent top and bottom through which the map paper 60 can be viewed, is satisfactory for use with this mapping machine. A suitable compass Is Illustrated in Fig. 13 which shows a casing 100 havIng a top glass plate 101 and a bottom glass plate 902. A transparent card 103 is mounted on the pivot pin 104 on bearing 105, the latter maintained on the pivot pin by retaining pin 106.

The card 103 has an index line 107 and suspended from the card are two substantially parallel needles 108 which are magnetic needles so arranged that the moments of inertia about all the horizontal axes are equal. The card is also provided with a circular float 109.

I claim as my invention: 1. A paper guiding and driving mechanism for j mapping machines comprising a double set of drive wheels and idler wheels between which a sheet of paper is adapted to be gripped on which the directions and curvatures of the highway are to be recorded, means for driving both drive wheels uniformly to advance the paper during the mapping operation, and means for turning one drive wheel non-uniformly with respect to the other for positively orienting the paper with0 out the introduction of sliding friction.

2. A paper guiding and driving mechanism according to claim 1, in which the last-mentioned means is operated by external guide means with the aid of a compass.

3. A paper guiding and driving mechanism ac-' cording to claim 1, in which the last-mentioned means includes a differential mechanism for one of the drive wheels and connected with the drive means to permit non-uniform motion of one wheel for guiding the paper.