Title:
Masonry
United States Patent 2097821


Abstract:
This invention relates to masonry constructed of building units or blocks of uniform shape and size and which will hereinafter be termed bricks, which expression will be understood to include clay or shale units and also units of any other suitable material. It is an object of the invention...



Inventors:
Mathers, Horace C.
Application Number:
US1643835A
Publication Date:
11/02/1937
Filing Date:
04/15/1935
Assignee:
Mathers, Horace C.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/250, 52/439, 52/474, 52/562
International Classes:
E04B2/30
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Description:

This invention relates to masonry constructed of building units or blocks of uniform shape and size and which will hereinafter be termed bricks, which expression will be understood to include clay or shale units and also units of any other suitable material.

It is an object of the invention to provide a unit of such shape that when the bricks are laid, embedded in mortar, the resulting brickwork will be strong and durable with the bricks positively locked to the mortar and not simply adhering thereto, and with provision for reinforcing rods extending longitudinally of the brickwork and having the bricks, and not merely the mortar, positively locked to the reinforcing rods.

It is a still further object of the invention to construct the bricks whereby the reinforcing rods may be readily continued around corners of the brickwork.

It is a still further object of the invention to provide brickwork wherein the reinforcing rods may be transversely tied, for example, to siding or other backing in veneer construction, or to the reinforcing rods of a parallel withe in double wall construction.

It is a still further object of the invention to lock the brickwork by providing each brick with a groove extending lengthwise of one surface of the brick, the groove being of a depth and having a cross-sectional shape whereby a reinforcing rod may be completely embedded in the groove or a bed of mortar may fill the groove so as to provide a positive transverse lock, and the brick having a cross-sectional area whereby it retains adequate strength in the direction of the depth of the groove, and the grooved surface lying between side surfaces of the brick which are preferably continuous non-recessed surfaces, either of which may form the exposed face of the brick.

Further objects of the invention will be readily understood from the following description of the accompanying drawing, in which: Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a brick constructed in accordance with the invention.

Fig. 2 is a transverse section on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is-a perspective view of a double wall constructed in accordance with the invention. Fig. 4 is a vertical section through brick veneering constructed in accordance with the invention.

The brick comprising the building unit is preferably although not necessarily a clay or shale product, of rectangular contour generally similar to usual bricks and of a size approximating standard bricks so as to provide such alternation of bricks and mortar joints as will securely bind the bricks into a masonry mass and properly distribute the load. For this purpose the brick may be of a length convenient for handling, e. g. approximately 12'inches, and its crosssectional width and depth may each be in the neighborhood of one-fourth of its length, with its depth preferably slightly greater than its width. The bricks are preferably laid on edge, i. e. with their depth which is slightly greater than their width lying in the plane of the wall which is formed by the bricks, the surfaces of the brick which thus form its bearing surfaces being shown at 1-2 and the surfaces of the brick which form its faces being shown at 3-4. In one of the bearing surfaces a groove 5 is formed, being shown in the bearing surface 1, and the groove extends the full length of this surface medially of its width so as to leave a rib 6 at each side of the groove extending the full length of the brick. The groove 5 is preferably rectangular in cross-section, and is preferably of a width approximately one-half the width of each rib 6D and is preferably of substantially the same depth as width. The groove is thus of a size to receive either a reinforcing rod or a mortar joint of such appreciable cross-sectional area as will have adequate strength, and since the depth of the groove is in the direction of the depth of the brick, which is somewhat greater than the width of the brick, the groove may be of appreciable size and still maintain the brick of adequate strength in the direction of its depth. In laying brickwork with units as thus described, mortar joints 10 are provided between next adjacent courses as shown at Figs. 3 and 4, and mortar joints are also provided between the bricks of a course as shown at II. The bond of the brickwork may be any standard or special bond, and is preferably a bond of stretchers only without headers. At Fig. 3 I have shown usual running or stretcher bond with the stretchers breaking joint at the center. A number of courses such as shown at A, are laid with the surface 2 of a brick forming its bearing surface which rests upon the preceding course, and with its grooved surface I forming the bearing surface upon which the next course is laid; and a bed of mortar which will form the joint 10 is laid upon the surface I so as to fill the groove 5 as shown at I0a and present a mortar bed of the desired thickness overlying the surface 1, with the surface 2 of the brick of the next course resting upon and embedded in this mortar bed. As a course is laid the end mortar joints 11 are formed in usual manner. By the construction as thus described each course has full bearing surface on the preceding course, and is positively locked to the preceding course, not merely by adhesion of the mortar, but by the longitudinal ribs of mortar I 0a which fill and seat in the grooves 5.

The invention also contemplates use of reinforcing rods extending lengthwise of the brickwork at predetermined courses. For this purpose at predetermined courses B which are separated by any desired number of courses A, a reinforcing rod 20 is laid in the longitudinally alined grooves 5 of the bricks which constitute the course, before the mortar bed for the joint 10 is laid. The rod is preferably of a size and cross-sectional contour to substantially fill the groove 5 and lie flush with the bearing surface 1, providing merely a slightly loose fit which when the mortar for joint 10 has been laid over the inserted rod, permits a thin layer of mortar to seep around the reinforcing rod so as to embed it in the groove 5 as shown at 10b.

The reinforcing rods 20 may be transversely tied, and at Fig. 3 I have shown ties between reinforcing rods which are in parallel withes of a double wall construction. For this purpose the withes C-D are each laid in the manner which has been described, with the mortar joints 11 of the withes in transverse alinement; and at desired ones of these mortar joints I metal ties 21 connect the reinforcing rods of the respective withes. In placing a tie it is connected to the rods 20 of the withes C-D at the end of a pair of laterally alined bricks of the withes, and is then embedded in the mortar for the joints II between these bricks and the next following bricks which are laid in the same courses of the respective withes.

In accordance with usual construction, the space between the withes C-D of the double wall may be filled with grout if so desired and as shown at E.

The reinforcing rods 20 may be continued without break around corners of the brickwork as shown at Fig. 3. For this purpose as many as may be necessary of the bricks may be constructed so that their grooves 5 may be angularly extended as shown at 5a, whereby said angular extensions of the grooves of that brickwork F which extends in one direction, will aline with the grooves 5 of brickwork G which joins the brickwork F at an angle thereto. As an instance of this arrangement the bricks which are adapted to form the grooves 5a may have one of their ribs 6 slotted adjacent one end of these bricks as shown at 30-31. The slots 30-31 open into the groove 5 but preferably terminate short of the outer surface of the brick, i. e. the surface 3 as shown at Figs. 1 and 2, and the slots preferably extend to the depth of groove 5. The portion 6a of the rib lying between the slots and extending to the depth of groove 5 may thus be knocked out by striking it a sharp blow so as to form the angular extension 5a opening through the surface 3. The slots 30-31 are so positioned that when the piece 6a is knocked out and the end of the last unit of the brickwork G abuts the inner face of the last unit of the brickwork F, with the outer face of said unit of G flush with the end of said unit of F, so as to form a corner as shown at Fig. 3, the angular extensions 5a of the groove in brickwork F will aline with the groove 5 in brickwork G, whereby rod 20 may be bent as shown at 20a and continued around the corner. Of the pair of slots 30-31 the slot 30 which is remote from the end of the brick is preferably inclined relative to the side wall of the groove 5, so that the outer end of the angular extension 5a may be the same width as groove 5, with the angular extension flaring to a greater width toward its inner end which opens into the groove 5. Space is thus provided for the bend 20a of the rod 20, without requiring an extremely sharp bend.

At Fig. 4 I have shown veneer brickwork comprising a single withe H, constructed of bricks such as previously described and preferably laid in the manner already outlined, with ribbed mortar joints 10a between courses and reinforcing rods 20 at certain of the courses. The reinforcing rods are tied to the backing I by ties 40 which are secured to the rods and embedded in the mortar joints 1I, with the opposite ends of the ties secured to the backing I.

The invention thus provides building units of simple and inexpensive construction, adapted to be readily laid so as to form brickwork having its courses positively locked to one another, with reinforcing rods positively locked in the masonry and transversely tied, whereby the invention isparticularly applicable to double wall construction. The groove 5 has side walls of appreciable area perpendicular to the side faces of the brick and adapted for engagement by perpendicular sides of rod 20 or by perpendicular sides of the mortar rib 10a so as to insure a positive transverse lock; and the grooved surface of the brick does not materially detract from the strength of the brick since it extends into the brick only a relatively short distance in the direction of the appreciable depth of the brick which depth of the brick is greater than its width.

The construction permits either of the side surfaces 3-4 being used as the exposed face of the brick since each of these surfaces is a continuous non-recessed surface. At the same time the slots 30-31 terminating just short of surface 3 permit the piece Ga being readily knocked out so as to provide groove extension 5a for corner construction.

The construction also permits of simple manufacture, in that the brick with straight groove 5 and slots 30-31 may be formed by any usual type of brick-making machinery including stiffmud or wire-cut machines, possibilities of manu- 55 facture for a brick as described being in no way confined to soft-mud or dry-press machines.

I claim: 1. A building unit having opposite surfaces constituting bearing surfaces, the unit having a groove in a bearing surface extending the length of the unit and forming ribs at said bearing surface at opposite sides of the groove, slots in one of said ribs adjacent the end of the unit forming a weakened portion of said rib between the slots adapted to be knocked out so as to form a transverse extension of the groove.

2. A building unit having opposite surfaces constituting bearing surfaces, the unit having a groove in a bearing surface extending the length of the unit and forming ribs at said bearing surface at opposite sides of the groove, slots in one of said ribs opening into the groove but terminating short of the outer surface of the rib and forming a weakened portion of said rib between the slots adapted to be knocked out so as to form a transverse extension of the groove.

3. Brickwork comprising bricks each having one pair of opposite side surfaces constituting faces and another pair of opposite side surfaces constituting bearing surfaces, one bearing surface of each brick having a groove along its length in transversely spaced relation from the faces of the brick, and the faces of each brick presenting continuous non-recessed surfaces, the bricks being laid in parallel withes which each include superimposed courses, the courses of the parallel withes being in transverse alinement, the ends of bricks of said transversely alined courses being in transverse alinement, a reinforcing rod in the grooves of each of transversely alined courses of the parallel withes, and tie rods connecting the reinforcing rods of the parallel withes at the transversely alined ends of bricks of said transversely alined courses.

4. A building unit having a bearing surface grooved lengthwise thereof, a portion of the unit at a side of the groove being weakened and adapted to be knocked out so as to form a transverse extension of the groove.

5. A building unit having a bearing surface grooved lengthwise thereof, a portion of the unit at a side of the groove having spaced slots therein forming a weakened portion of the unit between the slots adapted to be knocked out so as to form a transverse extension of the groove.

6. Brickwork comprising bricks each having one pair of opposite side surfaces constituting faces and another pair of opposite side surfaces constituting bearing surfaces, one bearing surface of each brick having a groove lengthwise thereof in transversely spaced relation from the faces of the brick, and the faces of each brick presenting continuous non-recessed surfaces, the bricks being laid in parallel withes which each include superimposed courses, a reinforcing rod in the grooves of each of courses of the parallel withes, and tie rods connecting the reinforcing rods of the parallel withes at the ends of bricks of the respective withes.

HORACE C. MATHERS.