Title:
Sizing and dyeing of textiles
United States Patent 2003409


Abstract:
This invention relates to the sizing and dyeini of threads and textile materials. The inventior specifically relates to the process of treating tex. tiles such that after processing to a fabric thq U sizing may be removed from the fabric simul. taneously with the dyeing operation. An object...



Inventors:
William, Whitehead
Application Number:
US69203133A
Publication Date:
06/04/1935
Filing Date:
10/03/1933
Assignee:
CELANESE CORP
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
8/529, 8/921, 252/8.83
International Classes:
D06M23/10; D06P1/92
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Description:

This invention relates to the sizing and dyeini of threads and textile materials. The inventior specifically relates to the process of treating tex. tiles such that after processing to a fabric thq U sizing may be removed from the fabric simul. taneously with the dyeing operation.

An object of the invention is a method ol processing a textile or fabric in a more economical manner than heretofore used. Other objects, ol the invention will be apparent from the following description.

In accordance with my invention I treat a yarn preferably before weaving, with a size and/or lubricant to aid in the processing of the textile. This size is selected for its solubility in a medium, which medium is to be compatible with the dye intended to be used. The finished fabric is then scoured free of its size and dyed in one operation by scouring in the medium, containing the dye, to dissolve the size on.the fabric and at the same time add the color from the medium.

My invention! is applicable to yarns of cotton, wool, real silk, flax, artificial yarns of organic derivatives of cellulose or reconstituted cellulose or the like by applying to the same a size selected according to the dye to be employed.

The invention is applicable to the treatment of yarns or filaments, under which terms are included, threads, assemblies or bundles of a number of continuous filaments which may be in parallel relationship or which may be twisted together, artificial bristles, straws, short lengths of staple fibres, or yarn spun from such staple fibres.

The invention is also applicable to fabrics and articles made from any of the various types and textures of yarns or filaments or a mixture of the same.

This invention is particularly of importance in connection with the treatment of yarns, filaments or fabrics made of organic derivatives of cellulose such as organic -esters of cellulose and cellulose ethers. Examples of organic esters of cellulose are cellulose acetate, cellulose formate, cellulose propionate and cellulose butyrate, while examples of cellulose ethers are ethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose and benzyl cellulose.

In the weaving and otherwise fabricating of textile fabrics, it is frequently necessary to coat the yarn employed with a sizing material which causes the filaments comprising the yarn to adhere together arid also to aot as a protective coating and lubricant. This sizing enables the yarns or ilamentsto resist tensioning and chaffing actions of the mechanism of the weaving or fabric5 eating devices. Frequently also, the yarnsor filag ments are coated with sizing materials prior to 1 twisting to a very high twist for the purpose of - producing yarns which contract and distort in e subsequent processing, imparting a finish to the - fabric which is known as,"crepe". ' The materials that are generally added to the f yarn as a size have usually been gelatins with or I without hydroscopic and lubricating. material, starches, gums, salts of resin acids and glycerides, etc. When employing any of the above types of sizes to the yarn employed in the manufacture ,of fabrics and similar textile materials, it is usually necessary prior to dyeing the materials Sto scour thoroughly to remove such sizing materials. In the removal of some of the sizes, organic solvents have to be employed for example the resinous salts type of size. Also, the application of the gelatinous and starch sizes which may be applied to the yarn from an aqueous media, involves care to insure homogeneous application and rapid drying to prevent stretching and weakening of the yarns.

In the process of my invention the step of scouring and dyeing' are the same, thereby eliminating the extra baths, etc., where scouring had to be done prior to dyeing. By my invention scouring and dyeing may be conducted simultaneously and level dyeing obtained. By my invention the sizes may be applied to the yarns in the cold and without wetting thereby elimi- 0 nating the dangers of weakening and stretching which accompany size applied with heat and from aqueous media.

In accordance with my invention the materials I employ in the size are soluble in organic solvents and are preferably applied to the yarns in solution of such solvents. The organic solvents properly chosen do not have a weakening action on the yarns or filaments and as far as can be determined from the measurements of the specific gravity of the yarns when immersed in such solvents and the strength of the yarns or filaments when wetted by such solvents the yarns and filaments do not absorb such solvents except to a very small extent. The solutions of solvent and size may be applied in any of the conventional methods, such as hank dipping or sizing of warps on the type of machine.known as the slasher sizer. I also find it economical and practical to apply the sizes to a yarn during its passage to a package in one of the winding operations especially the initial winding operation; this may be acconiplished by) .means of a wick, roller, rotating disc, etc. Where' wool, cotton or other staple yams are concerned, it is preferable to apply the size during the final spinning operation or when the thread is drawn and twisted to its final size.

It is preferable to allow the yarn to pass through a distance of 1 to 4 feet, according to the solvent used, after application of the size and before the yarn is taken up on the winding bobbin, hank or other package, to permit partial drying to occur by volatilization of the solvent. This drying may be hastened by installation of heating devices which may or may not contact with the yarn. It is also preferable for hygienic working conditions and economies in recovering the solvent to employ hoods and aspirators to remove thesolvent as it evaporates from the yarn.

I may employ any dye which will color the particular material being treated. It is preferable that the dyes, for use on synthetic filaments should be unaffected by the organic solvents used in removing the size or compounds liberated or formed at such a time.

Examples of suitable sizes and their solvents to be applied according to my invention are: Vinyl esters, such as vinyl acetate, or other partially polymerized vinyl compounds such as the inorganic vinyl esters, vinyl chloride, bromide etc. These sizes may be applied to the yarn or filament from such solvents as benzol, toluol etc., if the yarns contain cellulose ethers or esters. To all other textile yars, the size may be applied to same from an acetone solution.

Polyvinyl alcohol.-This may be applied to the yarns or filaments from alcohol or aqueous alcohol solutions and when thus applied is particularly suitable for use upon cellulosic, silk or wool yarns.

Salts of the resin acids, such as calcium abietate, mono-, di- or triethanolamine salts of the resin acids. These may be applied to any of the yarns from benzene, toluene, etc, Nitrocellulose.-This should preferably have a nitrogen content of 11 to 12% by weight. This size may be applied to the yarn from such solvents as mixtures of amyl acetate and amyl alcohol. This solution is applicable to all yarns except the synthetic nitrocellulose yarns which have not been denitrated.

According to the dye to be subsequently used a size and solvent therefor afe selected with which the yarn or filament is treated. After processing the yarn or filament to fabrics or other articles they are scoured in a bath containing a solvent for the size and a dyestuff. As the size is removed from the yarns and filaments they are dyed by the dyestuff in the scouring bath. The dyeing operation thus carried out simultaneously with the removal of size and cleaning operation is especially applicable to fabrics containing yarns comprising cellulose esters and/or ethers, but it is nevertheless, applicable to fabrics made solely of other fibres.

By way of illustrating my invention still further but not with the intention of limiting its scope thereby, I give the following specific examples.

Example I A yarn of 150 denier, during a winding operation, is caused to contact with a roll dipping in a trough containing a 6% solution of substantially unpolymerized vinyl acetate in toluene thereby coating the yarn with approximately 5% vinyl acetate. The vinyl acetate is caused to poly-' merize on the yarn by exposure to light. This yarn is woven into a fabric which is subjected to. a scouring and dyeing treatment on a jig in a bath containing 5% dimethyl amino anthraquinone in benzol at 65° C. Such treatment effectively removes most of the vinyl acetate and dyes the fabric a blue shade, Example II A yarn of 150 denier is treated with a 40% solution of triethanolamine abietate in toluene.

A coating of approximately 6% of triethanolamine abietate is placed on the yarn. The yarn is formed into a fabric which is scoured and dyed in a water bath.

Example III A viscose yarn of 75 denier is coated with ap 15 proximately 6% of partially polymerized vinyl alcohol from a solution of vinyl alcohol in methanol. A fabric woven from this yarn is scoured in a'methanol bath containing 3% chlorazol green. This treatment effectively removes the vinyl alcohol and dyes the fabric green.

Example IV A cellulose acetate yarn is coated with approximately 6% of nitrocellulose from a 5% solution 25 of nitrocellulose dissolved in a 50/50 mixture of amyl acetate and amyl alcohol. A fabric woven from the yarn is scoured in a 50/50 mixture of amyl acetate- and amyl alcohol with % . of p-nitro-benzene-azodimethyl aniline. The fabric so treated is effectively scoured free of nitrocellulose and is dyed orange.

Example V Example I is repeated substituting natural silk 35 for the cellulose yarn and a 1% rosaniline hydrochloride solution in acetone for the 5% dimethyl amino anthraquinone in benzol. The fabric in this case is cleansed and dyed a scarlet shade. Example VI Example V is repeated using a wool yarn in place of the silk with substantially the same results.

Obviously I may employ a mixture of sizes, also fabrics comprising yarns sized with different materials may be constructed. Thus crossdyeing is possible; for example fabrics iomprising wool and cotton may be sized with vinyl alcohol and the finished fabric scoured in an alcohol bath containing both chlorazol green and rosaniline hydrdchloride thus in one operation freeing the fabric from stains, dirt, and sizing material, dyeing the cotton part of the fabric green and dyeing the wool part of the fabric scarlet. It is to be understood that the foregoing detailed description is merely given by way of Illustration and many alterations may be made therein without departing from the spirit of my invention. Having described my invention, what I desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 1. In a process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, the step which comprises treating textile materials comprising 05 an organic derivative of cellulose and having a size thereon in a bath containing a dyestuff and an organic solvent for the size, whereby the textile materials are simultaneously de-sized and dyed. 2. In a process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, the step which comprises treating textile materials comprsing cellulose acetate and having a size thereon in a bath containing a dyestuff and an organic solvent for the size, whereby the textile materials are simultaneously de-sized and dyed.

3. In a process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, the step which comprises treating textile materials comprising an organic derivative of cellulose and having a size thereon in a bath containing a dyestuff dissolved in an organic solvent which is also a solvent for the size whereby the textile materials are simultaneously de-sized and dyed.

4. In a process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, the step which comprises treating textile materials comprising cellulose acetate and having a size thereon in a bath containing a dyestuff dissolved in an organic solvent which is also a solvent for the size whereby the textile materials are simultaneously desized and dyed.

5. Process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, which comprises applying a size from a solution of the same in an organic solvent to textile materials comprising an organic derivative of cellulose, processing the sized textile materials and treating the same in a bath containing a dyestuff and an organic solvent for the size whereby the materials are simultaneously de-sized and dyed.

, 6. Process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, which comprises applying a size from a solution of the same in an organic solvent to textile materials comprising cellulose acetate, processing the sized textile materials and treating the same in a bath containing a dyestuff and an organic solvent for the size whereby the materials are simultaneously desized and dyed.

7. Process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, which comprises applying a size to textile materials comprising yarns of an organic derivative of cellulose and yarns of a different substance, processing the sized textile materials and treating the same in a bath containing a dyestuff having an affinity only for the organic derivative of cellulose, a dyestuff having an affinity only for said different substance and an organic solvent for the size whereby the textile materials are simultaneously de-sized and dyed.

8. Process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, which comprises applying a size to textile materials comprising yarns of cellulose acetate and yarns of a different substance, processing the sized textile materials and treating the same in a bath containing a dyestuffhaving an affinity only for the cellulose acetate, a dyestuff having ah affinity only for said different substance and an organic solvent for the size whereby the textile materials are simultaneously de-sized and dyed. 9. Process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, which comprises applying a size to textile materials comprising yarns of cellulose acetate and wool yarns, processing the sized textile materials and treating the same in a bath containing a dyestuff having an affinity only for the cellulose acetate, a dyestuff having an affinity only for said wool yarns and an organic solvent for the size whereby the textile materials are simultaneously de-sized and dyed. 10. Process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, which comprises applying a size from a solution of the same in an organic solvent to textile materials comprising yarns of an organic derivative of cellulose and yarns of a different substance, processing the sized textile materials and treating the same in a bath containing a dyestuff having an affinity only for the organic derivative of cellulose, a dyestuff having an affinity only for said different substance and an organic solvent for the size whereby the textile materials are simultaneously desized and dyed.

11. Process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, which comprises applying a size from a solution of the same in an organic solvent to textile materials comprising yarns of cellulose acetate and yarns of a different substance, processing the sized textile materials and treating the same in a bath containing a dyestuff having an affinity only for the cellulose acetate, a dyestuff having an affinity only for said different substance and an organic solvent for the size whereby the textile materials are simultaneously de-sized and dyed. 12. Process for the production of textile materials of improved properties, which comprises applying a size from a solution of the same.in an organic solvent to textile materials comprising 4 yarns of cellulose acetate and wool yarns, processing the sized textile materials and treating the same in a bath containing a dyestuff having an affinity only for the cellulose acetate, a dyestuff having an affinity only for said wool yarns and an organic solvent for the size whereby the textile materials are simultaneously de-sized and dyed.

WITItAM WHITEHEAD.